Shivaji Bhonsle, also known as Chhatrapati Shivaji, was an Indian ruler and a member of the Bhonsle dynasty. He is believed to have died on 19 February 1630 and died on 3 April 1680. Shivaji built an enclave from the crumbling Adilshahi Sultanate of Bijapur which formed the origin of the Maratha Empire. E. In 1674, he was formally crowned the Chhatrapati of his kingdom at Raigad fort.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was brave and had an unblemished personality in Indian history. Chhatrapati shivaji maharaj was a warrior king and was famous for his bravery, tactics and administrative skills. He always focused on Swarajya and Maratha heritage. He was a descendant of 96 Maratha clans known as ‘Kshatriyas’ or brave warriors.
Chhatrapati shivaji Birth: –
Shivaji was born in the hill fort of Shivneri near Junnar town, now in Pune district. Scholars disagree on his date of birth. The Government of Maharashtra lists February 19 as a holiday commemorating Shivaji’s birth (Shivaji Jayanti). Shivaji was named after the local deity, Goddess Shivaji. Shivaji’s father Shahji Bhonsle was a Maratha general who served the Deccan Sultanate. His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhuji Jadhavrao of Sindhkhed, a Mughal-affiliated chief claiming to be a descendant of the Yadav royal family of Devagiri. Shivaji belonged to the Maratha family of the Bhonsle clan. His father Maloji (1552-1597) was an influential general of the Ahmednagar Sultanate, and was conferred the title of “King”. He was given patriotic rights in Pune, Supe, Chakan and Indapur for military expenses. He was also given Shivneri fort for his family residence. At the time of Shivaji’s birth, power in the Deccan was divided by three Islamic sultans: Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda. Shahji changed his allegiance many times between the Nizamshahi of Ahmednagar, the Adilshah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always maintained his manor in Pune and his small army.
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Sultanate of Bijapur: –
E. In 1636, the Adil Shahi Sultanate of Bijapur invaded its southern states. The Sultanate had recently become a tributary of the Mughal Empire. He was being assisted by Shahaji, who at that time was a sardar in the Maratha regions of western India. In the conquered territories, Shahaji was looking for opportunities for jagir land rewards, on which he could collect taxes as an annuity. Shahaji was a rebel from the brief Mughal service. Shahaji’s campaigns against the Mughals backed by the Bijapur government were generally unsuccessful. He was constantly pursued by the Mughal army and Shivaji and his mother Jijabai had to move from fort to fort. E. In 1636, Shahji joined the service of Bijapur and got Poona as a grant. Shivaji and Jijabai settled in Poona. Deployed in Bangalore by the Bijapuri ruler Adilshah, Shahaji appointed Dadaji Kondadev as the administrator. E. Q. Kondadev died in 1647 and Shivaji took over the administration. One of his first acts was to directly challenge the Bijapuri government.
Areas won by Chhatrapati shivaji: –
During his lifetime, Chhatrapati shivaji was engaged in both alliance and hostility with the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Golconda, the Sultanate of Bijapur and the European colonial powers. Shivaji’s military forces expanded the area of Maratha influence, captured and built forts, and formed the Maratha navy. Chhatrapati shivaji established competent and progressive civic governance with well-organized administrative institutions. He revived ancient Hindu political traditions, court conventions and promoted the use of Marathi and Sanskrit languages, replacing Persian in court and administration. Shivaji’s legacy was observant and varied over time, but almost two centuries after his death, he began to gain prominence with the rise of the Indian independence movement, as many Indian nationalists promoted him as a proto-nationalist and Hindu hero.
Conflict with Mughals: –
E. Q. Until 1657, Chhatrapati shivaji maharaj maintained peaceful relations with the Mughal Empire. Shivaji offered his help to Aurangzeb, who at that time was the son of the Mughal viceroy of Deccan and the Mughal emperor. Conquering Bijapur in return for formal recognition of their right over Bijapuri forts and villages under their control. Dissatisfied with the Mughal response, and receiving a better offer from Bijapur, he attacked the Mughal Deccan. Shivaji’s confrontation with the Mughals began in March 1657, when two of Shivaji’s officers raided the Mughal territory near Ahmednagar. This was followed by raids in Junnar in which Shivaji took 300,000 hun cash and 200 horses. Aurangzeb responded to the raid by sending Nasir Khan, who had defeated Shivaji’s forces at Ahmednagar. However, Aurangzeb’s actions against Shivaji were interrupted by a rainy season and a succession battle with his brothers for the Mughal throne following the illness of Emperor Shah Jahan.
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Attack on Shaista Khan and Surat: –
At the request of the Badi Begum of Bijapur, Aurangzeb, who is now the Mughal emperor, sent his mama Shaista Khan in January 1660 to attack Shivaji with an army of more than 150,000 troops, including a powerful artillery division led by Siddi Jauhar. Shaista Khan captured Pune with his well-equipped and well-equipped army of 80,000. He also captured the nearby Chakan fort and held it for a month and a half before breaking down the walls.
Took. Shaista Khan took advantage of the large, well-equipped and heavily armed Mughal army and entered some of the Maratha territories, captured the city of Pune and established his residence at Shivaji’s palace in Lal Mahal. On the night of April 5, 1663, Shivaji made a daring night attack on Shaista Khan’s camp. He, along with 400 of his men, stormed Shaista Khan’s mansion, entered Khan’s bedroom and wounded him. Khan lost three fingers. Shaista Khan’s son, many of his wives, servants and soldiers were killed in the melee. Khan took refuge with the Mughal forces outside Pune and Aurangzeb transferred him to Bengal and punished him for this shameful act. To avenge Shaista Khan’s attack, and to replenish his existing emptied treasury e. In 1664, Shivaji demolished the port city of Surat, which was a rich Mughal trading center.
The attacks on Shaista Khan and Surat angered Aurangzeb. In response, he sent Rajput Mirza Raja Jai Singh Pehla with an army of about 15,000 to defeat Shivaji. Throughout the year 1665, Jaisingh’s forces put pressure on Shivaji. His cavalry forces ravaged the countryside, and their siege forces invested in Shivaji’s forts. The Mughal commander succeeded in attracting many of Shivaji’s chief generals and many of his cavalry into the Mughal service. E. Q. By mid-1665, Purandar’s fort was besieged and came under his control. Shivaji was forced to reconcile with Jaisingh. In the Treaty of Purandar signed between Shivaji and Jaisingh on 11 June 1665, Shivaji agreed to give up his 23 forts, retain 12 of them and return 400,000 gold hunas to the Mughals. Shivaji agreed to become the vassal of the Mughal Empire and to send his son Sambhaji with 5,000 cavalry as mansabdars to fight the Mughals in the Deccan.
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Peace between Chhatrapati shivaji maharaj and Mughals e. Q. Lasted until 1670. At the time, Aurangzeb was suspicious of the close relationship between Shivaji and Muazzam, who he thought could snatch his throne, and he would also take bribes from Shivaji. At that time, Aurangzeb captured the battle against the Afghans. He greatly reduced his army in the Deccan. Many of the disbanded soldiers quickly joined the Maratha army. The Mughals also snatched the Berar estate from Shivaji so that the money lent to him a few years ago could be recovered. In response, Shivaji launched an offensive against the Mughals and recaptured most of the territory they had surrendered within four months. Shivaji e. Destroyed Surat for the second time in 1670. The British and Dutch factories were able to repel his attack, but he destroyed the city, including the looting of the goods of the Muslim prince of Mawra-un-Nahar, returning from Mecca. Angered by the renewed attacks, the Mughals resumed hostilities with the Marathas. A force led by Dawood Khan was sent to prevent Shivaji from returning home from Surat, but he was defeated in the battle of Vani-Dindori near present day Nashik. In October 1670, Chhatrapati shivaji sent his forces to Bombay to harass the British because they refused to sell him war materials. His forces prevented the English woodcutting parties from leaving Bombay. In September 1671, Shivaji again sent an ambassador to Bombay, again seeking supplies for the fight against Dand-Rajpuri. The British misunderstood the benefits that Shivaji would derive from this victory, but they did not want to miss any opportunity to get compensation for looting their factories at Rajapur. The British sent Lieutenant Stephen Ustik for treatment with Shivaji, but negotiations on the issue of Rajapur’s return failed. E. Q. Numerous ambassadors were exchanged in the following years with some agreements on arms issues in 1674, but Shivaji never had to pay compensation to Rajapur before his death, and e. The factory was disbanded at the end of 1682.
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Battles of Umrani and Nesari: –
E. In 1674, Prataprao Gujar, the Commander-in-Chief of the Maratha forces, was sent to repel the invading forces led by Bijapuri Senapati Bahlol Khan. Prataparava’s forces defeated and captured the opposing general in battle, besieged the strategic lake and cut off their water supply, causing Bahlol Khan to sue for peace. Despite Shivaji’s specific warnings against doing so, Prataprao released Bahlol Khan, who began preparations for a new invasion. Shivaji sent an annoying letter to Prataprao and denied him the audience until Bahlol Khan was recaptured. Upset by the rebuke of his general, Prataprao traced Bahlol Khan and left his main force behind, handing over his position with only six other cavalry. Prataprao was killed in battle. Shivaji was deeply saddened to learn of Prataparava’s death, and arranged the marriage of his second son, Rajaram, to Prataparava’s daughter. Prataprao’s successor Hambirrao Mohit came as the new Sarnaubat (Commander-in-Chief of the Maratha forces). The fort of Raigad was newly built by Hiroji Indulkar as the capital of the nascent Maratha Empire.
Victory of South India: –
E. Beginning in 1674, the Marathas launched an aggressive campaign, raiding Khandesh (October), capturing Bijapuri Ponda (April 1675), Karwar (mid-year) and Kolhapur (July). In November, the Maratha navy clashed with Janjira Siddhi, but they had to be removed.
Failed. After recovering from illness, and taking advantage of the civil war that broke out between the Deccanis and the Afghans at Bijapur, Chhatrapati shivaji attacked Athani in April 1676. In the run up to his campaign, Shivaji appealed to Decca’s patriotic spirit that South India is a motherland that should be protected from outsiders. His appeal was somewhat successful, and e. Q. In 1677, Shivaji visited Hyderabad for a month and made a treaty with Qutb Shah of Golconda Sultanate. They agreed to reject their alliance with Bijapur and to jointly oppose the Mughals. E. In 1677, Shivaji invaded Karnataka with 30,000 cavalry and 40,000 infantry, supported by Golconda artillery and funds. Moving south, Shivaji captured the forts of Vellore and Jinji. Later his son Rajaram would serve as the capital of the Marathas during the earlier rule. Shivaji’s intention was to reconcile with his half-brother Venkoji (Ecoji I), Shahaji’s son, his second wife, Tukabai (ne Mohite), who ruled Thanjavur (Tanjore) after Shahaji. Promising negotiations initially failed, so on his return to Raigad, Shivaji defeated his half-brother’s army on 26 November 1677 and confiscated most of his property in the Mysore plateau. Venkoji’s wife Deepa Bai, whom Shivaji held in high esteem, held new negotiations with Shivaji and persuaded her husband to stay away from Muslim advisers. In the end, Shivaji agreed to give her and her female descendants many of the properties he had confiscated, with Venkoji agreeing to a number of conditions for the proper administration of the territories and the preservation of Shahji’s monument (samadhi).
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Chhatrapati shivaji Death and heirs: –
The question of Chhatrapati Shivaji’s successor was complicated. Chhatrapati shivaji maharaj gave his son e. Restricted to Panhala in 1678. Only the prince fled with his wife and remained at fault among the Mughals for a year. Sambhaji then returned home without remorse and again confined to Panhala. On the eve of Hanuman Jayanti, around 3-5 April 1680, Shivaji died at the age of 50. The cause of Shivaji’s death is disputed. According to British records, Shivaji died of a blood clot after a 12-day illness. Anthrax is the reported cause of death of Shivaji in the contemporary work in Portuguese, Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa. However, Krishnaji Anant Sabhasad, author of Sabhasad Bakhar, Shivaji’s biography mentions fever as the cause of Shivaji’s death. The eldest of Shivaji’s surviving wives, the childless Putlabai, performed sati by jumping at his funeral. Another surviving partner, Sakvarbai, was not allowed to imitate because she had a young daughter. There were also allegations, though later scholars suspected that his second wife, Soyarabai, had poisoned his 10-year-old son, Rajaram, to make him sit on the throne. After Chhatrapati Shivaji’s death, Soyarabai along with various ministers of the administration planned to crown his son Rajaram instead of his half-son Sambhaji. On 21 April 1680, ten year old Rajaram was enthroned. However, Sambhaji captured Raigad fort after assassinating the commander and took control of Raigad on 18th June and formally ascended the throne on 20th July. Rajaram, his wife Janakibai and mother Soyarabai were jailed and Soyrabai was hanged in October on conspiracy charges.
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Important events of Shivaji’s life: –
- Conquest of Toran: – It was the first fort captured by Shivaji as the chief of the Marathas who laid the foundation of the ruling qualities of his prowess and determination at the age of 16 years. This victory led them to capture other forts like Raigad and Pratapgarh. Due to this victory, the Sultan of Bijapur was panicking and imprisoned Shivaji’s father Shahji. Is. In 1659, when Shivaji tried to attack Bijapur again, the Sultan of Bijapur sent his general Afzal Khan to capture Shivaji. But Shivaji managed to escape and killed him with a deadly weapon called Bagnakh or tiger claw. In the end, e. In 1662, the Sultan of Bijapur made a peace treaty with Shivaji and made him the independent ruler of the territories he had conquered.
- Conquest of Konda fort: – It was under the control of Nilkanth Rao. It was a battle between Tanaji Malusare, the commander of the Maratha ruler Shivaji, and Udaybhan Rathore, the guard of the fort under Jaisingh I.
- Coronation of Shivaji: In 1674, Shivaji declared himself an independent ruler of the Maratha Empire and was crowned Chhatrapati at Raigad. His coronation symbolizes the rise of those who challenge the Mughal legacy. After the coronation, he gets the title of ‘Haidav Dharmoddharak’ (protector of Hinduism) of the newly formed state of Hindavi Swarajya. This coronation gives the land a legal right to collect revenue and levy taxes on the people.
- Alliance of Qutub Shahi rulers with Golconda: – With the help of this alliance, he led expeditions in Bijapur Karnataka (1676-79 AD) and conquered Jingi (Jingi), Vellore and many forts in Karnataka.
Administration of Shivaji: –
Chhatrapati Shivaji’s administration was largely influenced by Deccan administrative practices. He appointed eight ministers, known as ‘Astapradhan’, to head his administration.
- The Peshwa was the most important minister who took care of finance and general administration.
- SenPatti Saari-e-Naubat was one of the leading Maratha chiefs who was basically given a post of honor.
- Majumdar was an accountant.
- Vacanavis are those who take care of intelligence, post and household matters.
- Surnavis or Chitnis help the king in his correspondence.
- Dabir was a master of rituals and helped the king in dealing with foreign affairs.
- Judge and Panditrao were in charge of justice grant.
- Chhatrapati shivaji maharaj levies tax on land which was one fourth of the income of the land i.e. one fourth or one fourth.
- He not only proved to be a competent general, skilled strategist and shrewd diplomat, but he also laid the foundation of a strong state by controlling the power of Deshmukh. That is why the rise of Marathas was due to economic, social, political and institutional factors. To that extent, Chhatrapati shivaji maharaj was a popular king who represented a statement of popular will in the area against the Mughal invasion. However, the Marathas were an ancient race but the 17th century allowed them to declare themselves as rulers.
ધણણણ ડુંગરા ડોલે… શિવાજીને નીંદરું ના’વે. માતા જીજાબાઈ ઝુલાવે… શિવાજીને નીંદરું ના’વે.
This lullaby composed by national shire Zaverchand Meghani is an overview of Shivaji’s heroic childhood. The sacraments prescribed by the mother in child Shivaji are manifested. Maratha Sardar Shivaji was a rarity. Strong ambitious soldiers who became immortal in history with their heroism.
Author: – Mrs. Snehal Rajan Jani